How to take certain types of pics for my college class in photography. I am trying to take action photos and in them, I am supposed to use shutter priority.
Hope I can help - it's quite simple really. Shutter priority means that you set the shutter speed (as in 1/30 sec, 1/60 sec etc) and the camera sets the lens aperture (as in f4, f5.6, f8 etc). It is up to you to choose the ISO rating, but for action I would use either ISO 200 or ISO 400.
If you use a slow shutter speed (such as 1/30 second) you will need to use a sturdy tripod to support the weight of the camera and lens (you've not specified which lens you are using, so I'll assume a zoom with a maximum focal length of 200mm). You will also need to use a remote release to fire the shutter, in order not to impart camera shake.
By using a slow shutter speed, you will automatically impart blur to the image - check on the monirot, and if the image is too blurred, choose a faster shutter speed (i.e. 1/60 second) - don't forget, the camera will take care of the aperture.
The angle from which you take the photos will also affect the result - if you are 'head-on' to the action, then there will be little sign of movement, whereas if you shoot from the side, then movement will be across the frame and will show to a far greater effect. A compromise is to stand at about 45 degrees to the action, so you get movement but the subject is still identifiable.
For frozen motion, just select the camera's fastest shutter speed, which on your camera appears to be 1/4000 sec. You will need to increase the ISO rating as well for this to be usable, especially on a less-than-sunny day - ISO 800, or even ISO 1600 may be necessary. I am assuming you do not have access to infra-red remote triggering equippment, so you'll need your remote release again. As there is a perceptible time-lag between deciding to fire the shutter and actually doing so, anticipate where you want the subject to be in the photo, then fire the shutter before it reaches that point.
Some people like to use burst shooting mode to ensure that get a selection of images, from which they can choose one or more, but since this is a college assignment, I would suggest practising until you can pre-visualise what Cartier-Bresson termed 'the decisive moment'.
Panning fills some people with dread, as it is the least predictable way to capture motion, yet can provide the most spectacular images. The camera will need to be hand-held for this - as I am sure you know, received wisdom states that when hand-holding a camera, the slowest usable shutter speed is the reciprocal of the focal length (i.e. for a 200mm lens, a shutter speed of 1/250 sec is considered the minimum) - this is to prevent camera movement during the exposure. With panning, we actually want camera movement to be plain, so choose a shutter speed of 1/60 sec or 1/125 sec. Again, a high ISO rating will be helpful - say ISO 400 or ISO 800. This is to ensure a reasonably small aperture, thus increasing depth of field.
Panning usually works best when the subject is parallel with the photographer, or maybe a little before this point, and the technique is very simple. You merely look through the viewfinder at your subject, making sure it is approximately in the middle of the frame, and, continuing to swing the camera at the same rate as the subject is moving, release the shutter just before the point you have selected as likely to give the best result. With a DSLR, of course, everything goes black as the mirror swings up, but it is vital to keep panning smoothly, because now is when the image is being recorded.
When the mirror returns to its usual position, if the subject is still in the viewfinder, there is a very good chance you have taken a successsful shot. Well Done !!
You haven't specified the subject matter for this assignment, but unless you are on safari in Africa shooting Klipspringers, chances are they will be people or pets. People are easiest - on a running track, they travel at a reasonable speed, and you have the chance to make adjustments in between each lap. Cyclists, unless on a velodrome or short city-centre circuit, pass less frequently, and at a greater velocity. Racing cars - possibly a little optimistic for your first attempt. Dog or horse shows may provide suitable subjects as well.
Main thing is - practice ! That is the great advantage of digital - instant replay, to check for areas to be improved, and almost unlimited storage. One final bit of advice - although RAW gives better results, JPEG writes to the SD card far faster, so you won't miss the one perfect shot of the day waiting for the data to be written to your card. Good Luck !!
Nikon D3200 24.2...
on Sep 30, 2016